Subject matter of the Philosophy Of Education
Is There Really a philosophy Of Education?
In reality, there is a close Relationship between Philosophy of Education. All education is based on philosophical views. Many Philosophies were also educationists. Education always Remained on important area of Investigation for Philosophers. Let us first define both the fields:
Definition of Philosophy:
Philosophy is a set of, ideas and beliefs about the purpose of man’s life, about the existence of God and about the origin of this surprising world:
Definition of Education:
Education is a Teaching and Learning Process, which aims at an all-round Development of an Individuals Personality, that his Moral, Social, Religion, Cultural, Intellectual, Physical and Economic Aspects are Polished and Improved.
From these Definition it is clear that Philosophers are Greatly Interested in the Intellectual, Moral and Social life of Man and Particularly in the education of man. They also Suggest Theories of good life for man. Philosophers have emphasized the Value and Importance of education for the proper Development of man. In their words “ Man becomes a man through education and Training.” Moreover Philosophers Raise many Question with Reference to Education for Example:
Educational Question of Philosophers:
(a) What constitutes an Educated Man?
(b) Is Teaching a Science on an Art?
(c) What is More Important—content or Method?
(d) What should be an ultimate aim of education?
(e) Is it right to prepare an individual for the society?
The purpose of all these questions is to make educationists and planner to think of a sound system of education. Philosophers also discuss the nature of the aims of education, the kind of the curriculum required, the role of the teacher and pupils and suitable teaching methods. The philosophers provide a guide—line to educationists and policy makes of education. As a result of it educational objectives and of teaching methods.
(1) Aims and objectives of Education:
Long before, in Greece, great Philosophers like Socrates, Plato and Aristotle have emphasized on the education of man of determined the aims and objectives of education. According to Socrates, education is to produce a virtues man. Plato talked about four cardinal virtues to be developed through a process of education , these are wisdom , courage , self-control and justice .For Aristotle , education aims at the development of body , mind and soul.
These views of philosophers provided a guideline for education and educationists elaborated their ideas and presented a large number of aims and objectives. Educationists have put emphasis on an all-round development of individuals.
Personality for this Purpose the Following Aims are presented:
Intellectual aim will sharpen the thinking power.
Moral aim will develop qualities of character.
Physical aim will keep the body healthy.
Social aim will lead to cooperative life.
Religions aim will develop a love for the creature.
Cultural aim will lead to civilization.
Vocational aim will lead to earning a living by fair means.
Citizenship aim will develop national and international understanding.
Aesthetic aim will develop a love for nature and beauty.
Recreational aim will develop a sense of enjoyment in life.
(2) Curriculum or structure of knowledge:
Philosophers also discuss the curriculum and the structure of knowledge to be imported for the progress of man.
According to them, the subjects of study should be organized around cognitive functions. It will include sciences, language, literature, maths religion, ethic etc.
Early Greek philosophers talked about seven liberal Arts to be part of curriculum.
It will be based on the study of (I) Astronomy,
(ii) Grammar (iii) Geometry (iv) Logic (v) Mathematics (vi) Music (vii) oratory. (Coral speech) Plato in his books “republic” and “the laws” recommends subjects of study for different stages of man.
Stages Ages Subjects of study
1- (7 --- 9 years) Riding, use of bow and arrow.
2- (10 --- 17 years) Games, Gymnastics, Reading, Writing, Music, and literature.
3- (18 --- 20 years) Number learning and cadetship.
4- (21 --- 30 years) Mathematics and science education.
5- (31 --- 35 years) Dialectic (Logic)
6- (36 --- 50 years) Philosophy and Politics.
Again the guidelines, for philosophers of Educationists provide the kind of Curriculum Required for the Education of man, explain it in detail. The educationists would determine the curriculum for different levels as per man’s ability, aptitude and interest. They talk about elementary level, secondary level and higher level. At elementary level, subjects of general knowledge would be included, (Math’s, language, history, geography, art+ Science). At secondary level, there will be a division of science subjects, Arts subjects of technical subjects. At higher level, there will be specialization in different fields medicine, engineering, agriculture, teaching, forestry, computer etc.
3. Methods of Teaching:
The philosophers of from their guidance new educationists discovered methods have also discussed methods of teaching. Philosophers gone great importance to Dialogue or Questioning method. Here, the discussion begins with the raising of questions, thinking on them and discovering the correct answers. Both the teacher of the pupils have to prepare them selves for this four aspects of discussion of dialogue are the following;
1) Exploration, it means finding a exploring the truth by asking many questions.
2) Explanation, it means ability to find out facts, collect information and verify the facts
3) Inference, it is the ability to do logical reasoning to study facts of draw inference.
4) Prediction, it is the ability to predict the correct answers on the basis of the collection of information of study. New ideas of concepts are presented.
With the help the guide lines provided by the philosophers, the Educationist have presented many new methods of teaching which would be suitable for different levels. These are the following :
1. Lecture methods will provide factual knowledge.
2. Discussion method will fetch many new ideas.
3. Experimental methods will prove the validity of knowledge.
4. Activity method will involve pupils in learning situation.
5. Play way methods will develops interest of the students.
6. Story-teaching method will correct lessons into stories.
4. The role of Teachers of Students.
The role of teachers and students has bee highlighted by Philosophers. They have put stress on teachers to provide true knowledge and that they should be the maker of democracy of should have professional excellence. They should have a through knowledge of the subject matter of come well prepared to the class. Moreover, the students should not be passive listener. They must join in discussion of raise QS.
The educationists have benefited from the philosophers and have pointed out many characteristics of good teachers. The chief role of the teacher is to build the character of the students. Teacher should present a practical model of polite speech. Teacher should have a balanced personality. They should be dedicated of devoted to teaching. Teacher must teach with interest and should act as a guide for the students.
The students must be hardworking. They should be obedient of respectful to the teachers. They should read the lesson before hand so that they can participate in discussion. They should be allowed to express their ideas.