Showing posts with label Research Report Format. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Research Report Format. Show all posts

Sunday, April 15, 2012

Research Report Format

Research Report Writing Format for "Institute of Education and Research University of Peshawar KPK, Pakistan"


Unit 1, Style, layout and page formatting

Format:
Font:
Times new Roman
12 point
Font for table can be sans-serif such as Arial but still in a size of 12

Line spacing:
Doubled-space, including title, headings, quotations, references, figure captions and all text lines of the manuscript

Margins:
1 inch margin at the top, bottom, right and 1.5 on the left of the page

Alignment:
  • Do not justify the right Margin (make the right margin even) for text use flush left
  • Do not divide words at the end of a line (do not use hyphenation)
  • Page line: 20 to 27
  • Page size: A4 80 gram (AA)
  • Minimum and Maximum length of thesis/Report (M.Ed level)
  • Masters Dissertation----Mini words-8,000 pages-32    Max words-10,000 pages-40
  • Master Thesis --------- Mini words-12,000 pages, 48.    Max. Words, 20,000, pages-80

Table showing the minimum and maximum length of the theses/ dissertation for master/ M.Ed/ M.phil/ P.hD

S #


words
Number of pages
Minimum
Maximum
Minimum
Maximum
M .Ed
8000
10,000
50
100
M .Phil
30,000
40,000
120
160
Ph. D
60,000
80,000
240
320
  • Maximum Number of pages for M. Ed:
  • Introduction chapter: 2-5
  • Statement of the study/issue: 3-5
  • Review literature: 20-40
  • Methods/Design: 8-10
  • Measurement techniques: 7-10
  • Result chapter:10-15
  • Discussion: 5-8
  • Summary and conclusion/Recommendation: 5-7
  • Total: up to 100

  • Maximum Number of pages for M. Phil:
  • Introduction chapter: 5-10
  • Statement of the study/issue: 5-10
  • Review literature: 40-50
  • Methods/Design: 12-20
  • Measurement techniques: 12-20
  • Result chapter: 20-30
  • Discussion: 10-15
  • Summary and conclusion/Recommendation: 5-8
  • Total: 120-160      


  • Maximum Number of pages for PhD:
  • Introduction chapter: 15-20
  • Statement of the study/issue: 10-15
  • Review literature: 110-140
  • Methods/Design: 25-35
  • Measurement techniques: 15-25
  • Result chapter: 20-30
  • Discussion: 25 to 35
  • Summary and conclusion/Recommendation: 20-25
  • Total: 240-320



  Format OF The Headings:
     Chapter Heading
  Centre, bold, upper case, font 14 .
Main Heading
Flushed left , bold upper case , font 12
Sub Heading
Flushed left , bolds, upper and lower , font 12
Sub Sub Heading
Flushed left, bold, upper and lower case, italicized font 12.
Sub sub sub  Heading
flush left , un-bold, upper and lower case, italicized font 12.

APA Headings
Level 
 Format
  1
Centered, Boldface, Uppercase and Lowercase Headings
  2
Left-aligned, Boldface, Uppercase and Lowercase Heading
  3
Indented, boldface, lowercase heading with a period.
  4
Indented, boldface, italicized, lowercase heading with a period.
  5
Indented, italicized, lowercase heading with a period.


I.          The heading” list of contents “should be up on the page in the centre of the line.
II.          If the report is in English, the topic will be written in capital letters. Page number would be written on the right side ,if the report is in English and on the left if the report is in Urdu. Page number of a specific chapter or heading should also be mentioned in the list of content in front of or opposite to the topics.
III.          From “abstract” to “acknowledgements” if the report is in English, the topics will be written in bold frame.
IV.          The topics of all the chapters will be printed in bold frame.
V.          The topics of all the chapters will be printed in bold frame.
VI.          The sub-topics would be in small letters.
VII.          The inside title page of the thesis will not be marked in the contents list.
VIII.          The page numbers of the contents list will be in Roman numerals.

Figures and tables
·       Title : uppercase, centered, bold, font size 10.
·       Subject –title: upper and lower case, centered , bold, font size 10.
·       Text: justified, not bold, single-spaced, font size 10.
·       Use Arabic numerals (1, 2 , 3 etc) to number the figure or table.
·       For explanation of any term, use small alphabets(a , b, c) and provide explanation right below the table or figure.
·       List of tables,

List of Tables
The list of tables is presented by chapter with a page number for each. If there is no table in the whole of the thesis, this list will not be prepared. In this regard following things are need special attention.
·       LIST OF TABLES” should be printed in bold frame in the center of the line on the top of the new page.
·       Below it, table number, table heading and page will be written in bold frame in the same line. Left and right margins will be set in equal size.
·       For every table, numbers will be Arabic.

·       List of charts and diagrams

List of Pictures and Diagrams
·       The list of pictures and the list of diagrams will be printed on separate pages and in every list names of the pictures and diagrams will be printed along with their page numbers. This list is like that of tables and incorporated in the thesis after the list of tables. It has the following style.
·       “List of figures” and “list of pictures” are printed in the center of line and top of the page.
·       These titles are printed in bold frame without full stop or comma.
·       Number of diagram/picture is written on the left side, name of the topic in the center and the page number on the right side of the paper.
·       Arabic numbers are used.
·       If there are numerous lists of diagrams, objects and maps, they can be incorporated in the report in different groups or under various topics separately. They can be called: list of figures, list of objects, list of maps etc.
Composition of the thesis script

   Most of the Researchers at National and International level follow the standardized format of the thesis text.
 It’s primarily organized in to three steps approach.

·       Preliminary component (ground work/ preface)

  1. Title Page       (Heading)
  2. Abstract          (Summary)
  3. Main Body                  (Major work)
  4. Final Part                   (Concluding work)


Preliminary component (ground work/ preface)

  1. Out side cover, title-spine (The front cover is the front of the thesis contains normally title and Author with the design in vogue. Title will be 8-15 words
  2. The spine is the vertical edge of a thesis as it normally stands on a bookshelf. Title that Appears on the spine of the publisher’s binder runs from the top to the bottom. The spine usually contains four elements
1. Author, Editor or compiler 2.Title 3.Publisher 4. Publisher logo)
                Font: Bold, 14 size, golden colour words inscription, hard bound and blue/black colour

Blue for M. Ed and black for Ph. D

                       
                                                                       



                                                                                  Showing the spine


2.  Blank Page (on the inside of the cover page, extending to the facing page in the front end paper which is also called blank page)

  • Title page of the thesis
The rules of format for APA-title page:

Font: Times New Roman

Title: Title should be concise, capitalize major words, but not minor ones

Running Head: the running head is an abbreviated title that is printed at the top of the pages of the manuscript and should be no longer than 50 characters (including spaces and punctuation)

Author by line: Your name (first name, middle initial, last name) if writing with other students their name as well

Institutional affiliation: e.g. IER University of Peshawar

Creating the Running head and page number in Microsoft word: 2007
  1. click on the insert tab
  2. click on Header in the Header and Footer bar
  3. Choose the Blank ( three columns) header
  4. Right click on the middle header “Type Text” and click Delete
  5. On the left-hand column of the header, type in the words Running head and then a colon : then type in your Running read in ALLCAPS
  6. On the right hand column, insert the page number with no other information (page, p, etc...) by clicking on the page number Button (Upper-left on the screen) and choosing Current Position and then Plain Number

Running Head: Plagiarism impact on Quality of Research                1





                                  Researcher’s Perceptions about Plagiarism

                                                    Tauheeda  Anjum

                                             IER University of Peshawar









Dedication (optional)
This thesis is dedicated to my father, who taught me that the best kind of knowledge to have is that which is learned for its own sake. It is also dedicated to my mother, who taught me that even the largest task can be accomplished if it is done one step at a time.
Approval sheet: this page will contain the name of the topic followed by the name of the author, faculty name and the degree for which the dissertation is required, specialization with the signature of viva voce committee.
                                           Approval sheet
Title of Thesis……………………………………………………………………
Name of the student……………………………Accepted by the faculty of ………………..in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the doctor of Philosophy Degree in……………….. With specialization (if any) in……………………………


Internal examiner                                               ………………………….
                                                                            Name               

 External Examiner                                           …………………………..
                                                                           Name

Director of  IER                                                 …………………………..
                                                                              Name
Date: day/ month/ Year



                            
  Acknowledgments:    

Mr.A has been the ideal thesis supervisor. His sage advice, insightful criticisms, and patient encouragement aided the writing of this thesis in innumerable ways. I would also like to thank Mr.B and Mr.C whose steadfast support of this project was greatly needed and deeply appreciated.


·       “beginning with Allah Almighty name” is printed on the third page            ( optional)

                                                    
Writing Table of Contents in APA Style

·       List of Contents,

TABLE OF CONTENTS TEMPLATE

Page
Unit 1, Style, layout and page formatting                                                   

………………………………………………………………………………. 1

Composition of the thesis script
 ………………………………………………………………………………. 4
Preliminary component (ground work/ preface)
Outside cover
…………………………………………………………………………. ……5
Title page…………………………………………………………..6
Dedication/Approval sheet ……………………………………………………………………………….. 7
Acknowledgments/ …………………………………… 8
Abstract…………………………………. 9
Forward sheet …………………………………………………………...………………10
Main Body/Introduction ………………………………………………….…………… 11
Review literature/Research Methodology/ Result/Discussion/ ……………………………………….12
Summary ………………………………………………………………………………………….13
Literature sited ……………………………………….………………………. 14


·       Number of diagram/picture is written on the left side, name of the topic in the center and the page number on the right side of the paper.
·       If there are numerous lists of diagrams, objects and maps, they can be incorporated in the report in different groups or under various topics separately. They can be called: list of figures, list of objects, list of maps etc.

            The number and the name of chapter:
A page before a chapter has no page number and contains the chapters name and number, for example. Chapter first, chapter second, chapter third etc is written to indicate chapter number. In addition to the number, chapter title is also mentioned on the same page such as ‘instruction’ review of related literature, research procedure, etc.
·       Abstract of the thesis

Begin a new page for Abstract. This page should already include the “page header”. Center the word “Abstract” (No Bold, formatting, italics, underlining or quotation marks) example.

                                                Abstract

It’s the brief sketch out of over all research report/thesis. Its main purpose is to covey the very essence of the report, including objectives, procedures and recommendations; to the layman in a very simple way. It can be longer no more than a page and pertaining to two hundred words. (Do not indent)

 Single Paragraph and Double space

List the Key words from paper text. The keywords in italics and centre

                    Keywords e.g. IER, RT, UOP

The certificate of the approval of the dissertation (from the supervisor side both external and internal)


FORWARDING SHEET (next page)
The thesis entitled ………….submitted by…….in partial fulfillment of…….degree in…………with specialization in……… (If any) has been completed under my/our guidance and supervision. I am/we are satisfied with the quality of the student’s research work.
                          ……………………………..
                            Supervisor
                                                                         
                                                                           ……………………………..
                                                                         Co supervisor



 Date: day, month, year

List of Abbreviations (if appropriate)
If you use abbreviations extensively in your thesis/dissertation, you should provide a list of abbreviations and their corresponding definitions. The heading “List of Abbreviations” should be centered and appear 1″ below the top of the page. Arrange your abbreviations alphabetically at the left margin single-space within each entry and double-space between entries.



The main Body

Internationally the main body of the thesis is divided into five or six chapters. The model developed for IER will stick to six chapter model. Including;
                       
1.               Introduction
2.               Review of related literature
3.               Research methodology
4.               Results; (Analysis and interpretation of data)
5.               Discussion
6.               Summary; ( Conclusion, Recommendations)
1.     Introduction;

It is the modified form of the research synopsis, in the sense that the research synopsis is written in the future tense while the first chapter (introduction) is written in the past tense.

First chapter includes the following;

1.1       Introduction (introduction of the topic)
1.2       The statement of the problem
1.3       Objectives of the study
1.4       Importance and significance of the problem
1.5       Hypothesis/Research questions
1.6       Research methodology
1.7       Limitation of the study

2.     Review of related literature;

 The points should be focused in the second chapter (Review of related literature);
·       A critical analysis of the existing researches which are directly related           to the study should be presented.
·       The researcher should reveal his in-depth understanding of the material
·       Reviewed.
·       Make the second chapter, the foundation stone of the study.
·       Proceed in a sequential order (compulsory) and classify the information in   
·       different sections (optional)
·       Give references and mention in the bibliography.

The points should be avoided in the second chapter (Review of related literature);
Giving summary of the books
Unnecessary details of basic elementary concepts.
Long quotations from books
   
            This is the second and the most important chapter of the research theses at any level.  Its length is based on material which provides a precise detail about the research topic to all those who haven’t any basic information about the research topic. This chapter also shows the conceptual clarity and mastery of researcher over his research topic.  This chapter is based on three paragraphs.
 In first paragraph researcher define his research study variables and provides detail information about it.   The second paragraph known as main body is based on review of related literature about research topic.  Mostly all the related material with the consideration that minimum seven year back researches and researches which are conducted inside the country are included as previous work related to the topic.  The previous work is cited in chronological order. There are two methods of writing citations.
  
In one method the text is copied from the original source in the same words and manner for example,

“Boys in rural areas are more likely to leave school early than any other group (Cortis and Newmarch, 2000).


In second method the researcher writes the main context of the literature in his own words with mentioning the name of author and year in the beginning for example,

If we go through the research work of Rubin   et al (1998) we find the characteristics of bullies like their stronger tendency towards the aggressive behavior and also high tolerance for aggressive behavior.

The length of the review literature is that much required that it provide ample information about research topic that what the previous work has been done in this regard.

At the end the researcher explains his research topic, describe its connection with other research studies and what he wants to explore in future.  The researcher also defines the worth of his topic and its implications in future.


3.     Research methodology;

3.1       Mention the type of research study
3.2       Describe the population and sample
3.3       Explain principle of sample selection.        
3.4       Identify research tools.
3.5       Explain data collection procedure.
3.6       List the research statistics applied, if applicable.
3.7       Determine the criteria for confirmation of reliability of the tools of research.
              3.7.1  Rationale for questionnaire
  3.7.2  Construction of the questionnaire
  3.7.3  Contents of the questionnaire
  3.7.4 Area contained in the questionnaire
  3.7.5 Collections of the data
  3.7.6 Administration of the questionnaire

4.     Results (Analysis and interpretation of data);

4.1       Give brief results and findings.
4.2       Analyze the collected data
4.3       Draw the inferences using the selected research statistics.
4.5        Add tables and graphs to facilitate understanding.
4.6        Give details and findings below each table and graph.
4.7        Give summary of findings at the end of this chapter.  

5.     Discussion;

In this chapter a critical analysis of the study is given. The researcher accepts the responsibility of his work. He also point out the possibility of any element affecting the findings of his study during the course of study.
The following points are focused in this part;
5.1      Interpretation of the results
5.2      Integration of the results with the research objectives
5.3      Be impartial and unprejudiced.
5.4      Point out any aspect which emerged during the research, which is
5.5      Important should be mentioned in this section.
5.6      Identify the weaknesses which appeared during the research.
6.   Summary (Conclusion, Recommendations);
In this section a summary of the study is given along with the conclusion drawn on the bases of the findings of the study. The researcher gives his recommendations and mentions the areas which, he consider important to be explored further.




Literature cited:

APA style 6th Edition www.endnote.com/support/enapa6thstyle.asp retrieved on           17.08.11


Adeeb.M.A & Rehmani.S.H (2007) Rules and Style in Writing M.Phil and PhD   Theses:                  The Islamia University of Bahawulpur

 www.owl.english.purdue.edu/owl Retrieved on 17.08.11

www.gradschool.unc.edu/ Retrieved on 17.08.11

www.source.unco.edu/ Retrieved on 17.08.11