Of “class X Pakistan studies Textbook”
By miss wilayat
In the history of curriculum development in Pakistan in 1960, social studies were introduced as compulsory subject at elementary and secondary levels. Later on in 1976, the name of “Social studies” was changed to “Pakistan Studies” for high classes (ix-x) with particular emphasis on its ideological, historical, geographical, socio-economic and cultural aspects of the country.
The content of Pakistan studies at secondary level spreads over ten chapters for class x.
The content of each chapter is briefly stated
Chapter# 1 Ideological Basis of Pakistan
This chapter contains themes such as
· Features of an Islamic society
· Ideology of Pakistan
· National characteristics
Chapter#2 the Making of Pakistan
This chapter discusses
· Different revival movements started by shah waliullah, syed Ahmed shaheed, Haji Shariatyllah etc.
· Two nation theory, Muslim League as mass movement and the establishment of Pakistan.
· Role of various provinces in making of Pakistan.
Chapter# 3 the Islamic Republic of Pakistan
This chapter concentrates on the objective resolution, constitution making history, the Islamic and main provisions of 1973 constitution. The chapter ends with explaining the causes of the fall of East Pakistan.
Chapter# 4 Land and Climate of Pakistan
The chapter discusses the geographical features and characteristics of Pakistan. Sub themes of the chapter are
· Physical features
· Climate of Pakistan
· Influence of climate on the activities of the people in different regions.
Chapter# 5 Resources of Pakistan
This chapter discusses different types of resources such as
· Natural resources
· Agricultural resources
· Mineral resources
· Power resources
· Human resources
The underlying concepts of the chapter are conservation, preservation and exploitation of resources. Children are also made aware of the irrigation system of Pakistan and the reforms which have been brought in agriculture.
Chapter# 6 Industrial Development in Pakistan
The industrial resources include such topics as means of communication, roads, railways, air, sea, trade and commerce, foreign trade etc. The chapter also describes the different types of industries.
Chapter# 7 Population of Pakistan
This chapter includes the following topics
· Demography: Population and population characteristics urban/rural, literacy rate.
· Growth of population, migration
· Development of resources and population growth
Students are adequately familiarized with the concepts of census, population, population growth, urbanization and migration factors and forces.
Chapter# 8 the Pakistani Culture
The culture of Pakistan include such topics
· Language of Pakistan
· The importance of national language
· Common culture manifestation in the national life
· Dress, arts, crafts, and festivals
In the context of cultural orientation, the concepts of unity, integration, national cohesion, preservation of heritage and promotion of national unity in diversity, patriotism etc has been highlighted in the content.
Chapter# 9 Education in Pakistan
The education in Pakistan discusses such issues and types of education system in Pakistan
· Formal primary, secondary and professional education
· Importance of education in different fields of life
· Problems and prospects of education
· Chapter# 10 Pakistan: A welfare state
· The main features of the content contained in this chapter are the concepts of welfare state, national goals, need for sustained constructive efforts, and self sufficiency in food, universal education, egalitarian society, universal brotherhood and world peace, balanced distribution of resources and role of individuals towards welfare state.
The curriculum of Pakistan studies is comprehensive in nature. A thematic approach has been adopted for all its constituent parts of history, geography, civics and economics of country, some of the chapters like ‘Resources’ and industrial development in Pakistan are unnecessarily lengthy and slightly difficult and boring for students, while others are normal in length and lead students from easy to difficult concept.
On the whole the course is theoretical in nature, not supported by various activities to be carried out by students so that the subject could be make interesting. Activity is the natural urge of the child, while the urge of the child is not incorporated to bring the student close to the real life situation.
No objectives are give in the beginning of each chapter. Contents are not devised properly due to lack of objectives.
In order to make the student familiar of social, cultural and geographical environment, study trips is the most important activity but we cannot see any provision for such trips.
A variety of audio-visual aids have not been recommended to be used in teaching of Pakistan studies. There is no indication which type of aid be prepared by teachers and students.
No pictorial representation i.e. pictures of important personalities and places are not provided.
New social problems & issues will emerge with the passage of time but in this book there is no flexibility to absorb and accommodate such changes and development without disturbing its fundamentals and equilibrium.
Important project work is not given at the end of each unit as to ensure the participation of social children in various community based activities outside the school.
There is no provision of skill development for school children e.g. Map making, or making models of different form of landscapes.