TIME, PUPIL AND SPACE
MANAGEMENT IN CLASS ROOM
by Iram afridi
What is classroom management?
• Classroom management is all of the things that a teacher does to organize students, space, time, and materials so that instruction in content and learning can take place (Wong, 1991).
• These things include: making rules that have both rewards and consequences that are rationalized with the students, clear expectations, and routines for entering the class, passing out papers, using the restroom, and turning in homework.
Time is a unique and important resource. We cannot increase the time we have, nor can shorten it. It is up to you how to use and prioritize time each day.
SETTING AND ACHIEVING GOALS
Writing daily goals helps us organize and us time more efficiently. When goals are not written down, they often dissolve into a wish list which is soon shed like an old skin. The pressures of the day justify the lack of accomplishment and we simply forget to complete various tasks.
Use the Daily Planner to write your daily “to-do” lists and include the steps needed to reach your goals-they are your course of action each day. Using “to-do” lists to organize and compartmentalize you daily tasks helps you lower stress, reduce the amount of work you take home, and work more efficiently toward your goals. Consider the following steps when preparing and completing “to-do” lists.
Brainstorm both short and long term goals.
Break down long term goals in to small manageable steps.
Save the most difficult tasks for your peak productivity time-those hours in which you do your best critical thinking and problem solving. You can double your productivity and save time by accommodating your natural body clock.
Organize and group you objectives in to categories such as paperwork, office errands and people contacts.
Assign time blocks for completing each group of tasks, then work on one goal at a time. Research shows that for most jobs, we function more efficiently by completing one task before moving on to the next.
Write tasks on stick-on notes and attach them to your lesson-plan book to monitor your progress throughout the day.
How to manage instructional time
• Who is involved in time management
– The teacher
– The students
– The parents
• The students’ job
– Maintaining a high level of academic productivity
• Coming to class with a pencil, paper, and book
• Coming to class on time
• In seat and working when the bell rings
• Coming to class with homework completed
• Transitioning quickly and quietly
• Following classroom rules
• The parents job
– Knowing the expectations of the teacher and school
• Making sure the student has homework finished
• Sending the student to school
• Making sure student is at school
• Maintaining regular contact with the teacher
How to manage instructional time-the teacher’s job
• Arrange /Save time by organizing materials the day before you are going to use them
• How to manage interruptions
• On the outside of your door post a note:
• “Our time is short, we’re busy trying to stretch it. Please leave a note”
• Have a pencil and a piece of paper for notes
• Select extracurricular activities carefully with attention on their educational value not on their entertainment value
√ = complete • = in progress = forward to tomorrow
Things to do before school:
Thing to do at school in the morning:
Thing to do at school in the afternoon:
Things to do after School:
TIME CONSUMING TASKS MADE SIMPLE
Store art materials on a rolling, cart and assign student helpers to distribute needed materials before the lesson while the class is involved in other activities or at recess.
Once a week, have helpers distribute corrected work while classmates clean out their desks. Or, designate bins for students to pick up corrected work as they leave at the end of the day.
Have students help complete tasks as they talk to you during recess. Organize the paper drawer, distribute supplier for the next lesson feed classroom pet, and so on.
Write sentences for oral-language practice on overhead transparences or sentences strips, and filed for further use.
Keep a supply list taped to your file cabinet. Any time you think of a needed supply, jot is down, then at the beginning or end of each school day, make one trip to the supply closet to collect needed materials.
GETTING TO KNOW FAMILIES
Initiate contact with student’s families within the first week of school, preferably the first day. Parents will appreciate you interest in their child, and students will feel more welcome knowing you care about their lives. The information you obtain from this initial contact (and those that follow) helps clarify the concerns and needs of your students.
GETTING TO KNOW STUDENTS
During the first week of school, play a variety of games that help students get acquainted and feel part of a supportive team.
What’s in a Name? Investigate and discuss name origins. Compare how letter sounds differ in certain languages (e.g., the Spanish letter Jas in June as in sound like the letter H). Invite students to make an ABC book of classmates names and what they mean in different languages. For Example, Alice becomes Alicia is Spanish, Which means “Truth”
People Search. Write and photocopy statements pertaining to student’s hobbies interests, and physical descriptions, invite students to locate classmates who match their decryptions, writing names alongside each statement.
Names Search. Make word-search puzzles containing students names. Have students write names vertically, horizontally, or diagonally, one letter per box filling empty squares with random letter. Invite students to trade papers and search for each name.
Portrait Puzzles. Invite Students to draw self-portraits on construction paper, and writ several facts themselves on the back. Have them cut portraits into puzzles, pieces and place them in plastic bags. Collect and randomly redistribute puzzles. Have students put puzzles together to identify classmates, then turn puzzle pieces over and reassemble to reveal written facts.
Name Graph. In advance, make a bar graph on butcher paper. Place letters of the alphabet on the horizontal axis and numbers on the vertical axis. Begin by asking if there is any one in the class whose first name begins with A. Have those students stand up and introduce themselves, taking turns saying their name as the rest of the class echoes a greeting. After all A names are written, invite those students to stand up together while classmates try to recall and recite names from memory. (The graph can be used for help as needed) Continue with other letters of the alphabet until all students have introduced themselves.
LET’S GET ACQUAINTED
Child’s Name Birth date
Home Phone Work Phone
List several of your child’s “favorites” such as a favorite food, TV Program, book, or hobby:
Your Child’s Strengths:
Areas needing improvement:
Educational needs of your child from your perspective:
Any other information you would like to provide:
Welcome to Class !
Directions: Write classmates, names vertically, horizontally, or diagonally, with one letter per box. You may work alone, with a partner, or in teams. Give the filled out to a friend and invite him or her look fro and circle the names.
ASSIGNING CLASSROOM RESPONSIBILITIES
A simple and effective way to build a supportive, inclusive classroom community is to have students assist with the daily operation of your classroom. Students will feel a sense of purpose and pride by performing classroom duties. Refer to Appendix a for a list of classroom leadership jobs to incorporate into your classroom.
Be sure to rewards students for jobs well done through personalized thank our notes homework passes, computer time and son on. Assign job “Favorites” to students displaying exceptional effort, or invite top performers to select their own jobs. Motivate students to perform classroom duties by sharing success stories of influential leaders, emphasizing how there individuals served and assisted others. For added fun, invite older students to apply for specific jobs by filling out application forms and interviewing for positions.
CLASSROOM LEADERSHIP JOBS
Audio-visual Helper-sets up and puts away tape recorders, filmstrip projector, overhead projector, TV monitor and videotapes.
Center Group Leader facilities problem-solving at learning centers.
Class secretary record agreements or solutions formulated by the class.
Courier-Carries messages from the classroom to the officer or other classrooms.
First Aid Captain in charge of monitor situatins in which bandages or other basic first aid supplies might be needed .
Guest greeter answers the door and introduces guests to the class.
Homework helper takes care of paper work for daily homework.
Htorticulturalis learns about and takes cares of classroom plants.
Keeper of s the Journalresponsible for distributing and collection journals.
Leadership Chart keeper rotates “Special Job” cards as directed by the teacher.
Light Helper turns classroom lights on and off when needed.
Line leader-leads the class to and form recess, assemblies, and so on.
Student Editor edits other students work.
“Sunshine” Keeper writes notes or cards to class members who are ill or places hand made cards form the student in to large envelope in preparation.
Welcome team committee that welcomes and support new students.
Window operator open closes windows when needed.
WAYS TO ASSIGN AND MANAGE STUDENT JOBS
Job pockets with titles or draw pictures of classroom jobs on library book pockets place students name inside each pocket to assign responsibilities. Rotate name cards to assign new jobs. Have students write job title on the back of each card to monitor tasks performed throughout the year. Change popular , easily trainable job assignments daily or weekly. All other jobs be assigned by the month or quarter.
Mob wheel . Connect two tag board circles, on four inches (10cm) smaller than the other, with a large brad. Use a permanent maker to divide the smaller circle in to pie shaped wedge, then write student names in each one. Write job title on outer circle sections and align with student names. Assign new jobs by rotating the inner circle.
Show You care……
Be friendly and patient. Give yourself time out angry or upset. Student react more to the tones of your than the words being spoken.
Avoid using sarcasm. Students may misinterpret it as criticism or jokes at their expense. Give encouraging feedback. Emphasize the positive, and always acknowledge effort.
Express confidence in student capabilities. Success is related more to “I Can: than IQ.
Be honest-students appreciate direct yet gentle feedback.
Regularly praise student performing both publicly and privately. Remember, good behavior that is ignored tends to disappear. .
Remember to smile students you genuinely enjoy their presence.
Give students you undivided attention. Avoid doing other work (Sorting paper, communicating with colleagues) while student are speaking.
Always make eye contact when speaking to students four to six second per glance (About the time it takes to click a camera) Eye contact shows you are focused and interested in what’s being said.
Watch you body languages, keep arms to you sides than crossed front of you crossing your arms as you speaks or listen may be misconstrued as anger or impatience.
Follow through with promises. Student learns to trust your words when actions follow.
Be consistent in your behavior. Students feel more secure and safe when expectations and boundaries are early established.
CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT: UNOBTRUSIVE TECHNIQUES
These include body language, mannerisms, posture, inflections and nuances in tone of voice the pacing of speech , and the feelings that languages evokes.
· Your face is powerful tool of communication. Use friendly smile.
· Change your facial expressions such as a widening your eyes or moving your eyebrow (S)
· Use a “beat beyond” eye contact by looking at the person for a second or two beyond the normal time and then smile. This is contrast to a state that is often accompanied by a stem expression. Staring is aggressive and works against a no coercive relationship.
· Lower your head or as you look at the student.
· Employ a group signal for attention, such as all raising hand or lowering the lights.
· Use a pause-perhaps the least used and most effective techniques.
· Chang your voice inflection or reduce the volume of you voice.
· Use release of tension, such as breathing out and then taking a deep breath.
· Make a variety s ssshhh sound, such as, “You sssshhhhould be listening now.:”
· Give a subtle hint, such as, “Thank You, Salim,” or “Please, Sara.”
· Use friendly request, such as, “Thanks for considering other,” or “Thanks you for your attention.
· Ask an evaluative question, such as, “Please ask yourself if that meets the standards of our class, “or “If you could do something about changing that, what would you choose?”
· Combine a need with a request, such as “The noise you are making is disturbing us. Is there a way you can work so that we won, be distracted?”
· Stat your needs, such as, “ I need your help in this.”
· Move to a different location, you may even establish place in your classroom to where you will move when students, behaviors need changing.
· Use proximity by standing next to the students and perhaps including a gentle touch on his or her desk.
· In case of a tapping pencil or some other tapping sound of which the student may not be aware, redirect the object to the students thing, or slip a tissue underneath the area on the desk so the sound will not be heard.
· Use the principal of entertainment. Entertainment is a form of communication that occurs when we “get on the same wavelength. “ in the case of a rhythmic sound, such as tapping pencil, the teacher can tap a foot of stretch a rubber band at the same tempo as the student is tapping the pencil. When the teacher slows the tempo of the foot tapping or rubber band stretching, the tapping or the pencil will also slow down. Entertainment can also be used by the teacher’s stretching or deeple inhaling. Students will follow the same action.
· Use a positive rather than a negative rapport position. Standing site by side or at an angle with the student is non confrontational. This is in contract to a head to head face to face, confrontational pose. Also, lowering your body below that of the student stooping places the students in an empowering position. This easily diffuses unwanted situation.
· Entertainment and positive rapport can be combined . When you are speaking to a student, mirror his body posture. For example, if a student its slumped over, then the teacher slumps. When the teacher straightens up, the student will follow the new positive.
· Use your hands in an inviting posture. A palms up, open hand ins an invitational position A hand-down, finger point position is a repelling position.
· When a near a student, you ca safely assume that the student is listening to you. It is often counterproductive to demand a student look you directly in the eye. The student may be embarrassed or is showing respect by not looking directly at you.
USING HUMOUR TO CORRECT BEHAVIOR
Students respond m ore readily to creativity and humour than to strict or stern commands. Do the unexpected and create a humorous atmosphere to correct and modify behavior. Consider the following light-hearted ways teacher have kept their students on task in a safe, supportive environment.
On primary teacher suddenly began to whisper when she realized her student weren’t giving her complete attention. Students were caught off-guard not hearing the teacher’s voice, looked up, and leaned forward to hear what was being said. The teacher caught their attention without upset or disruption, and the students appreciated and responded to the humour of the situation.
A very tall math teacher looming 6’ 4” in to the stratosphere talking to the wall when he realized no one was listening. The sight was irresistibility funny-everyone had a good laugh and attention was pleasantly reestablished.
One preschool teacher used puppets to give directions. Make announcements, and regain attention. Sometimes she would use a puppet to correct behavior, having the puppet act angry and upset over behavior while she defended the student’s action. Students would interact with the puppet, discussing ways to correct and modify their behavior so every one.
DISCUSSING AND RESOLVING PROBLEM WITH STUDENTS
Keep the atmosphere “Safe.” Make every effort to remain patient and clam.
Be Supportive and constructive in your action. Listen objectively and choose consequences that are fair and appropriate.
Be aware of peer influences. Many students will turn disagreements in to power struggle to “Save face.” If possible address serious conflicts in private, giving both you and the student time to regain composure.
Acknowledge the fact that you cannot make students do anything against their will (You just hope they will choose to dot the “ right thing”)
Realize that student may be reacting to pressures and stress unrelated to school
Ask them about life outside of school, focusing on unexpected event or changes in the regular daily routine. If necessary, talk parents to learn more about any outside pressure.
One of the first areas a teacher must consider about classroom management is the environment of their classroom. Students need to feel comfortable in the place that they spend nearly six hours of their day five days a week! You will find that you will get much better results in the classroom if you arrange your room to allow for orderly movement, keep distractions to a minimum, and make efficient use of the available, keep distractions to a minimum, and make efficient use of the available space.
Listed below are four helpful guidelines that will assist you in arraigning your room which is much more efficient and conducive to student involvement in work.
FOUR KEYS TO GOOD ROOM ARRANGEMENT
Keep High Traffic Areas Free of Congestion.
Be Sure Students Can be Easily seen by the Teacher.
Keep Frequently Used Teaching Material and Students Supplies Readily Accessible.
Be Certain Student Can Easily See Instructional Presentations and Display.
CLASSROOM SPACE INVENTORY
Use the following inventory to assess you current use of Classroom space. Place a check by each statement that describes you learning environment, and add and any additional statements about you classroom at the end of the list.
USE OF FLEXIBLE FURNITURE
Tables Chair and desks can be easily moved stacked.
Learning centers fold and move for easy storage.
Some cupboards are on wheels.
Crates and other handy containers and used for short-term units, “Checks-out materials, and consumables supplies.
PERMANENT RESOURCE AREAS
Classroom Library .
HIGH TRAFFIC AREAS
· Easy access to pencil sharpeners and trash cans.
· Easy mobility through doorways and between desk.
· Sufficient space around supply areas and bookshelves.
· Adequate space to move among group work areas.
INSTRUCTIONAL PRESENTATIONS AND DISPLAYS
Students easily see chalkboards, overhead-projector screen, and TV monitor.
Flannel boards or storyboards are clearly visible.
All students see pull down maps.
Students can be seen at all times.
Desk arrangement enables close proximity to students.
Students are close to instructional areas for good eye contact.
CLASSROOM ENVIRONMENT AND LEARNING MODALITIES
Support auditory (hearing) learning.
Support visual (Seeing) learning.
Supports kinesthetic (moving) learning.
Support tactile (touching) learning.
ROOM ARRANGEMENT AND LEARNING STYLES
Accommodates individualized learning
Accommodates collaborative learning
Accommodates concrete learning.
Accommodates Abstract learning.
Accommodates sequential learning.
OFFICE IN THE CLASSROOM
A functional and conformable place to work.
Desktop is clear of al distractions
Files are conveniently located close to my desk.
Planning guides and textbooks are easily accessible.
Monthly wall calendars are posted close by for long-term planning.
MEANINGFUL USE BULLETIN BOARDS
Display a variety of students work.
Communicate important information in simple terms.
Graphically tech crucial concepts using pictures and charts.
Cleverly “Stone” Students materials.
Provide teaching / learning resources areas.
INVITING AND MOTIVATING ENVIRONMENT
Clean and orderly room.
Exhibits a variety of colorful and exciting display.
Display samples of decision-making.
Classroom furniture appropriate for the students.
Container and shelves are labeled.
Materials for a variety of learning opportunities are available.
Friendly, helpful, and encouraging climate.
Conductive to both formal study and informal interactions.
Stimulating ambiance but not overly distracting.
Positive, safe, and task-oriented atmosphere.