Friday, August 8, 2014

TYPES OF CURRICULUM



TYPES OF CURRICULUM
There are many types of curriculum design, but here we will discuss only the few. Types or patterns are being followed in educational institutions.
ü  Subject curriculum
ü  Teacher Centered curriculum
ü  Learner centered curriculum
ü  Activity/Experience curriculum
ü  Integrated curriculum
   Core curriculum
   Board field curriculum
   Hidden curriculum
Subject Based Curriculum
Subject matter is the most used and accepted curriculum Design, it is also the oldest curriculum Design. We see the earliest example in the medieval era in the Middle Ages the monastery and Cathedrals and the organizations of the seven liberal arts in the schools of ancient Greece and Rome. The seven liberal arts were consisted of two divisions:
1. Trivium
2. Quadrivium
These subjects were broad. In the modern period the Trivium was further divided to include literature and history and the quadrivium to include algebra, trigonometry, geography, botany, zoology, physics and chemistry. In this manner subjects added one after the other so much so that in 1930 there were over 300 different subjects.
After centuries the curriculum design of the seven liberal arts are still the nucleus of the subject curriculum. In a subject base curriculum every subject is separate unit. In this kind of curriculum four or five subject are placed in curriculum and each subject has a separate teacher. Every teacher try to teach his own subject, no one intervene in the subject of other teacher
Characteristics of Subject Curriculum
Information for future use
Importance is given to acquire knowledge and information for future use, only those subjects are considered important which have a value and the individual have benefit from it in future (vocational importance). Adult problems are given importance and the problems of children in youth are ignored
Progress is measured to the extent the students learned the subject
In this type of curriculum subject matter is the most important thing to learn therefore the learning is measured by how much and well the subject matter has been mastered by the pupil. Frequent tests are given to students to check the degree of the achievement in the subject.
Predetermined uniform standard of knowledge:
There is a uniform standard for all the students to pass the subject else they well have to repeat the subject therefore the experts of the subject centered approach strongly support the minimum standards for examination so all  achieved the set standard and qualify the examination. The teacher tries to help the weak students and to bring him to the set standard and pass the exam or repeat a grade.
Each subject is a separate entity (unit) with a logical organization of its own:
Importance is given to the acquisition of skills, facts and information for vocational purpose in different logically organized subjects. The teaching staff teaches different subjects and they do not discuss or plan subject together.
Practice in skills is emphasized:
The main aspect of subject base curriculum is the continues practice or drill in a specific skill, it is one of the typical characteristics of the subject base curriculum. For this purpose multiple methods are used; evaluations, Exercise session, tutoring classes are often dedicated to such type of practices and all the students are given equal opportunities to participate.
Subject matter is selected by adults/experts for teaching learning situation:
The content of the subject is selected in advance before the teaching learning process; the subject matter is logically organized from simple to complex with the help of the experts, specialists, teacher’s supervisors, planners, writers and administrators.
Learning subject matter is an end in itself:
The main focus of the teachers, administrators and students are to complete the subject matter, to cover all the topics which are provided in the course out line by Listening to lectures, studying the recommended textbook. It is all preparation for examination on the part of students and teachers and it shows the influence of the subject centered approach. For the teacher to finish the textbook on time is a great accomplishment,
Requirements for the Optimum Operation of Subject Curriculum
ü  Trained Teachers with mastery in a subjects and expert in methodology are required to teach.
ü  A separate classroom for each subject and each level.
ü  A fixed time table is required for different subjects according to importance of the subjects and age in curriculum.
ü  Special arrangements for guidance physical education, Indoor and outdoor activities, tours and examinations etc.
   Need of Text books and guide books for           subject                      base curriculum.
Criticism on Subject Curriculum:
Teacher has the control over pupil experiences, Learning activities and conduct. The teacher follows the decision of others in the planning and evaluation process. The teacher and headmaster formulate the rules for the classrooms management. They demand a very stern discipline and they want a quite classroom atmosphere, teacher thinks it is the best situation for teaching learning process.
  1.  It is compartmentalized and fragmentary.
The critics believed that there is no unity and continuity in the subject base matter. The subject is learned in parts. Every teacher is specialist in one subject and he feel pride to have the knowledge of his own subject and teaching and denying any responsibility for any other subject. Here they say that the learner acquire scraps of information not actual knowledge.
2.            Subject base curriculum ignores the interest and activities of the learner. The critics think that the arrangement of the course content is useless and inefficient and not suitable for teaching learning process. The subjects are logically organized.
3.            The critics also have a viewpoint that the fact is the students know about the history what a few men had done in the past but they do not know about the current situation in their own country and what are the hopes and desires of Pakistani people and what are the social problems they have today here .
  1. The critics also said that subject base curriculum fails to develop habits of effective and critical thinking. This curriculum gives importance to mastery of conclusions of thought (the end result) rather than the process through which that conclusion were derived. Which support this conclusion that it lead to uncritical thinking? The traditional assumption is that anybody who has learned the facts and information can think effectively, but the evidence does not support this assumption.
Defense of Subject Curriculum:
         Defense of Subject Curriculum
  1. The supporter of the subject base curriculum rejects the claim that it did not develop child’s thinking. They argue that it is the most suitable method for the development of critical thinking in an individual but if one cant then the problem lies in the instruction not in the curriculum itself. A vast majority of countries select this method and they are producing botanist, doctors and geologist and so on.
2. The other claim that it is fragmentary and compartmentalized is also not true about subject base curriculum alone because no one can study one subject in one session at once in any kind of curriculum. They use the principle of selection in the selection of course contents.  In a sense anything that is learnt is a fragment and is a part of some larger unit.
3. It gives the teacher the idea what to teach and the student what he suppose to learn and how much time they have to cover the course of the subject. This provides them with a constant source of security and a self evaluation process through which they know how much course they have cover and how to complete.
4. Subject base curriculum use a logically sound framework for the organization of subject matter, it used the cause and effect principle in science and the chronological order of the historical events but they assumed an order and are reliable for learning experiences
5. The evaluation of subject base curriculum is easy. It use the achievement based testing in the evaluation to find the mastery of the subject matter in the individual.
6. It has a bright future. Subject approach is useful for specialization in any branch of knowledge. It is more effective.















Learner-Centered Curriculum
The supporters of learner-centered Curriculum give importance to individual development and they wants to organize the curriculum according to the needs and interest of learners, there are fundamental differences in this approach and the subject-centered design.
This movement from the traditional curriculum towards a programme that stresses the interests and needs of students, This approach was used by Rousseau in the education of Emile,  then Dewy in his laboratory School in 1896-1904. it is believed that all of these twentieth-century efforts reflect, the influence of Dewey.
 it is a fundamental principle of education that the beginning of each instruction it shall be connected  with the previous experience of learners. The purpose is that the experience and the capacities that have been developed  in early lessons, it should provide  a starting point for further learning.  The current importance given to student-centered programmes may not always acknowledge the Dewey’s philosophy and influence on the movement to incorporate more student-serving learning opportunities into the curriculum.
The association for the Advancement of Progressive Education formed in 1919, had its aim “The development of the individual, based upon the scientific study of his mental, physical, spiritual, and social characteristics and needs”. The views of this association, later called the Progressive Education Association (PEA), were compatible with the ideas of Dewey’s as indicated by their principles:
  1. Freedom to develop naturally.
  2. Interest is the motive of all work.
  3. The teacher is a guide, not a task-master.
  4. Scientific study of pupil development.
  5. Greater attention to all that affects the child’s physical development.
  6. Co-operation between school and home to meet the needs of child-life.
  7. The progressive school a leader in educational movement.
The aim of using the learner-centered curriculum on the part of curriculum planners to interpret the needs and interests design as one based on common needs and interests of learners rather than on those of the particular population to be served. Reflected in curriculum plans, this interpretation could and sometimes did, become the rationale for teaching. Research on learner centered curriculum in recent years made it possible for curriculum planners to develop a better learner-centered curriculum. Modern learning theories and dissatisfaction of students and parents from the old curriculum, are moving curriculum and instruction toward a design that focus on real student needs and interests.
  1. Characteristic:
the curriculum design on the needs and interests of student has these characteristic  and features.
  1. The curriculum plan is based on knowledge of learner’s needs and interests in general and diagnosis the specific needs and interests of the population served by the plan.
  2. The curriculum plan is flexible, to accept new modification to conform to the needs and interests of particular learner’s In fact, in some curriculum designs the learner may develop his or her own curriculum plan with the guidance of a teacher.
3. The learner is consulted and tutored individually    at difficult points in the curriculum and instructional process.
Learner centered approach is an example of the applications of needs and interests (activities) approach. Subject obstacles were lowered or removed as teachers combined subjects to study social problems identified by students.
Students in the experimental schools were more successful in college. This practice has ever lasting effect on secondary education.
  1. Applications of learner Centered Curriculum:
If the learning opportunities are not based on the needs and interests of the learners then there is no assurance that the learners well equipped with the skills to participate effectively in social activities; students as adults and good citizens. Therefore we see that the needs and interests design as especially appropriate for the personal development, but not for the social competence domain.
The most common approach to meet the needs and interests of learners is the grouping of students for special programmes believed by the planners to match the needs and interests of the students concerned.
The major use of the needs and interests design in curriculum planning is in the provision of options for individual students. For example, the middle schools provide many special interests activate, exploratory courses and other experiences aimed at giving each student opportunities to explore his own interest.
Currently the movement in higher education and expansion of it by “Open University” arrangements illustrates the feature of the needs and interests design. Drunker (1969) argues for continuing education which assumes “that the more experience in life and work people have, the more eager they will be to learn and the more capable they will be of learning.
Curriculum plans emphasizing the option concept:
  1. The options are based on knowledge of learner characteristic.
  2. Scheduling and other arrangements facilitate,  selection and choice of options, with counseling services available to help students.
  3. Students are actively involved in planning and evaluating the options in general and for themselves in particular.
Activity Based Curriculum:
The Activity Based Curriculum is also called project curriculum or an experience curriculum but the name activity is a fundamental conception.  Activity Curriculum has a long history. The title “Activity Curriculum”, however, did not come into general use before 1920, although Dewey used the expression “Activity Programme” as early as 1897 in a talk to the parents and teachers at his laboratory school in Chicago (U.S.A). Activity is the natural urge of the child. He wants to do things by himself. When curricular material is translated in terms of activity, it is known as activity curriculum. Learning of the prescribed material takes place through activities. Activity is used as a media or means for imparting knowledge and skills.
Activity is the greatest motivation for child. he enjoys the freedom of expressing his potentialities during activities.
These activities should not merely be considered as physical activity but also intellectual activity. The educator (teacher) should engage pupils in activities in such a way that while manual skills are gained there should be mental satisfaction found in the work. The students should not be passive listener they should be active participants in the process of learning.
True learning is experiencing, while activity is the process then experience becomes the product of activity. Activity results in experience, in fact activity and experience cannot be separated from each other. A purposeful activity must end in gainful experience. The school must, therefore, plan its activities in such a way that students gain mastery on various experiences. Such type of projects should be completed under a problematic situation in a natural setting.
Characteristics of Activity Curriculum:
  1. Children’s Interest Determines the Educational Programme:
The primary principle of the activity curriculum is that the interests and purposes of children determine the educational programme. The basic principle of the activity programme refers to the felt needs of children and not of adults. Because the educational programs are aimed at doing something in the best interest of the children and not for an adults only. It is the task of the teacher to discover these interests and to build educational activities upon them.
 Whims (urges) must not be considered as basis of an educational programme. The interest of the students must be carefully analyzed   and then accepted, These intended courses of actions are accepted after their consequences are reviewed. The subject matter is a mean of fulfilling the purposes of an individual or a group and as a result of manipulating subject matter children learn within the boundaries of group interests. The teacher’s responsibility is to find out the interest of individual students and of the groups. He helps children to select the most interesting activity for study;   Building a cage for an animal, making preparation for a field trip, gathering information on a current political affair, running a school store, planning family budget
 The Activity Curriculum is not planned in Advance:
The teacher discover the interests  of students in group or individually. He guides the students in the selections of activity and their interest among activities. He helps them to plan and carry out these activities according to their interests. He also guides the individual or group in assessing what they have accomplished in the process. This is the responsibility of the teachers to make plans for himself how to guide the  students and their activities in the classrooms. Although teacher does not come into the classroom with a preplanned subject matter. He does come with ideas and a background of experience of the students and their interests. These are his working tools.
Activities are Planned Co-operatively by Students and the Teacher:
The teacher and the students plan the activities cooperatively what needs to be done? And how, first of all objectives are formulated with the help of the teacher, and then the class students considers means of teaching the objectives e.g. a group has determined to improve the beauty of its own classroom. The class may be divided into small groups so that students can talk with their seat mates.
A student from each of these groups report to the total class. There should be ample opportunity to organize for investigating, seeking information, selecting materials, interviewing people and carrying on the activities needed to solve the problem, in each of these steps the students take part in making decisions and they assume full responsibility for it. Here the teacher is guide in the process of learning, he guide the students how to select group leaders and how to make intelligent decisions. Most important is the quality of thinking that goes in the group. There is a given and take of ideas in the group. The opinions of different students in the group are evaluated  by the students to select the best idea of all. It is really a laboratory for learning group processes.
Problem solving is the Dominant Method of Activity Curriculum:
In the activity curriculum, the teaching learning process consists largely of problem solving. In the pursuit of interests in the groups to complete an activity  various difficulties will arise. The teacher and his students are to find ways of overcoming these obstacles. As the interests of children lead to problems requiring a great diversity of content so the subject matter from almost every field of


Knowledge is used in the activity curriculum. But the subject matter is studied as a means of solving problems and not as subject.
The Teacher Assists the Group as a Resource Person:
Here the teacher works as a guide and resource person. He serves to small groups, to individual students. He sometimes leads the discussion to help the students to analyses the problem. He works with them in improving their skills. He is a part of the total learning situation rather than task master.

Practice and Individual Assistance are provided as needed:
In activity curriculum the need for practice grows out of the learning situation. As the students show the need for working on spellings of certain words, or grammar, the teacher gives them the opportunity to learn and practice these skills. If the students ask the teacher to help them in writing a letter to invite a speaker, the teacher will not write the letter for them, but he will guide them. He will work with them on the use of words and thus he will encourage them to write a letter inviting the guest speaker.
a.       Requirements for Optimum Operation of Activity Curriculum:
  1. Training of Teachers:
Teachers should have a broad general education with specialized training in child and adolescent development, guidance and methods of teaching.
  1. Physical Features of the School:
Activity base curriculum needs spacious Building, grounds and classrooms to permit as many activities as possible. Will light rooms and have ample facilities; for displaying and decorations devised by children. The ample use of school grounds in addition to outdoor class work and for other countless outdoor activities in which children may engage as they follow their interests.
To complete these possibilities the school will require several times more space then they have now.
Tentatively ten acres of land (one acre= 4940 sq. yards) would likely be the minimum to meet the needs of an activity curriculum. To those critics who criticize the activity curriculum as the most expensive pattern of curriculum organization, the advocates of an activity programme will give a reply that there is no such thing as “a good cheap education:.

Teacher-Centered Curriculum:
Teachers participate in a variety of curriculum activities at classroom level. These are the very core of their daily teaching tasks and include such activities as selection of specific content, selection of teaching approach, use of audio-visual aids and so on. In recent years teachers have become increasingly involved in a broader level of curriculum decision-making such as involvement in major curriculum projects. It mostly involves few teachers, although some teachers participate in syllabus committees.
At the school level, however, staff members are becoming more responsible for a vast array of curriculum decision.
In countries where they have adopted teacher centered curriculum the schools have considerably greater responsibility for curriculum development. In these schools teachers have become involved, willingly or unwillingly, in more school-level curriculum decision-making.
Regardless of the state in which one teaches, it has become obvious in recent years that all teachers are participating more in curriculum decision-making at the school level. The nature of this participation may be seen in the various roles that teachers adopt in the decision-making process.
It is suggested that teachers may participate in any combination of curriculum decision-making roles at the school level:
  1. Implementers
  2. Adapters
  3. Developers
  4. Researchers
  5. Implementers.
As an ‘implementer’ or ‘receiver’, the teacher’s role is to apply the developed curriculum. In this role the teacher has a minimum of responsibility and involvement in the curriculum development phase of the curriculum process, though he has a significant role in the application phase of this process.
  1. Adapters.
As an adapter, the role of the teacher is just the same as implementer. This is somewhat conceptual term which indicates that the teachers become ready to accept the curriculum in order to implement it.
  1. As a developer, the teacher’s role is to take part in the curriculum development process. In Pakistan, some representative teachers are being invited to attend various meetings held by the higher authorities in order to make contributions in the curriculum development or curriculum evaluation process.
  2. Researchers.
Curriculum is a dynamic process. Keeping in view this characteristic, there is a need to conduct research in order to bring about desirable changes in the curriculum. Teachers in most of the countries and also in Pakistan are taking part in various types of researches in curriculum development process. The nature of these researches is.
  1. To review the curriculum.
  2. To evaluate the curriculum.
  3. To change the curriculum etc.
  1. Advantages of Teacher’s centered Approach:
ü  As the curriculum is designed by the teacher, it become easy to achieve the desired goals.
ü  Subject matter become psychologically sound due to its relevance with interests, needs and level of the children.
ü  Content/Subject matter is logically arranged.
ü  Irrelevant material/Subject matter is avoided.
ü  Teachers feel comfortable and confident in the classroom activities.
ü  Democracy is encouraged.
ü  Co-operation is developed.
ü  Society/Community is also involved (directly or indirectly) in the development of curriculum.
ü  No objection is raised by the teacher in connection with the availability of sources and resources.
  1. Limitations:
If this approach is followed in Pakistan then the following limitations may hinder the process.
ü  A change in the attitude on the part of learners, teachers and community is difficult to develop.
ü  Lack of sources and resources.
ü  Hindrance due to rigid administration, planning and management.
ü  It will become difficult to maintain a common standard in various institutions.
ü  The existing curriculum for the teaching training institutions is not suitable for the teacher centered approach.
ü  A drastic change in the examination system/evaluation will be required.

INTEGRATED CURRICULUM
Defining Integrated Curriculum
What exactly is integrated curriculum? In its simplest conception, it is about making connections. What kind of connections? Across disciplines? To real life? Are the connections skill-based or knowledge-based?
         Correlation may be as slight as casual attention to related materials in other subject areas . . . a bit more intense when teachers plan it to make the materials of one subject interpret the problems or topics of another
  • Integration: the unification of all subjects and experiences.
Arguments for supporting integrated curriculum
There are two strong arguments supporting an integrated curriculum. First, there is simply too much information to be covered in the traditional structure of a forty or fifty minute class period. Secondly, most subjects are taught to students in isolation from other related information. Advocates of an interconnected curriculum believe that individuals learn best when encountering ideas that are connected to one another. A strong belief system exists supporting that "all things are connected."
What do the critics say?
Critics of integrated curriculum have formulated several arguments against the idea;
v  First, it is sometimes appropriate for information to be taught within the content area. Some concepts run the risk of becoming confused when connected to unrelated subject matter.
v  Secondly, most teachers have always been a part of a somewhat modernist method of teaching. Therefore, implementing integrated curriculum becomes increasingly more difficult.
v  Third, critics claim that many teachers may lack knowledge and skills of the various disciplines.
v  Finally, a key criticism of integrated curriculum is assessment. Schools continue to struggle with effective methods to assess student achievement in regard to higher level thinking and deeper understanding. In order for integrated curriculum to replace traditional teaching styles, the entire structure of the school needs to be change. Frankly, this is a change that many modernist teachers are not willing to accept.
v  The integrated curriculum approach is successful in making students more aware of content area connections, challenging students, providing a learning environment, supporting academic and social needs, dissolving the boundaries among the disciplines, and fostering stronger student/teacher relationships.
Ø  Components of Integrated Curriculum
Ø  Focuses on basic skills, content and higher level thinking
Ø  Encourages lifelong learning
Ø  Structures learning around themes, big ideas and meaningful concepts
Ø  Provides connections among various curricular disciplines
Ø  Provides learners opportunities to apply skills they have learned
Ø  Encourages active participation in relevant real-life experiences
Ø  curiosity, motivates, and challenges learners
Ø  Provides a deeper understanding of content
Ø  Offers opportunities for more small
Ø  Accommodates a variety of learning styles/theories (i.e., social learning theory, cooperative learning, intrinsic motivation, and self-efficacy) and multiple intelligences
The organization of integrated curriculum is a post second world war occurrence. This phenomenon gain greatest support in the 1960s. Based on the essential organization of content, as in the subject design, the academic disciplines design emphasizes on the role played by those diverse entities called academic disciplines. Thus it is clearly defined in terms of knowledge, skills and values.
OBJECTIVES OF INTEGRATED CURRICULUM IN PAKISTAN
1.            The basic objective of integrated curriculum is to emphasize the learning and basic language skills for the children of class’ I to III this would increase the literacy rate of the country.
2.            Reeducation of text books to one or two only so that the Teachers may focus their attention on the improvement of language skills of the students and along with it they may be able to impart the concept of other subjects.
3.            In integrated curriculum, the mental level and interests of the children acquire the central place which is the basic condition of acquiring knowledge.
4.            Interesting textual material not only attracts the children but also provides opportunities to groom up their mental abilities. Therefore efforts have                been made to prepare the integrated curriculum with the following comprehensive general objective.
5.            The general objective of the integrated                approach is to make a clear relation between various subjects (having similar   concepts) so that the learners may apply their knowledge in real life situation.



Foundations of Curriculum



Foundations of Curriculum
Foundations are the forces that influence the minds of curriculum developers.
In this way they affect the content and structure of the curriculum.
The curriculum reflects the society and culture of a country and this is the desire of a society that their children should learn the habits, ideas, attitudes and skills of the adult society and culture and educational institutional are the proper way to impart these skill. This duty of teacher and school to discipline the young of the society and provide them the set of experiences in the form of curriculum. The needs, knowledge and information of the society provide foundation in the formation of curriculum
Philosophical/ ideological foundation

It is concerned with beliefs.
What is real --- ONTOLOGY
What is true --- EPISTEMOLOGY
What is good – AXIOLOGY
                                                                                                               
Philosophy means the love of wisdom, it search for truth, not simple truth, It search for eternal truth, reality and general principles of life. Curriculum help in the practical use of knowledge in real life situations and understanding realities and ideas of life and this world that why curriculum is called the dynamic side of philosophy.                                                                                                                               
Curriculum is used for the modification of the behavior of the students and philosophy help in the process of finding new ways and basis for teachers and curriculum planner to modify their behavior. Philosophy also helps in the exploring new methods of teaching and how to apply in the classroom situation for better achievement of the teaching learning process. It also provides new ways and methods for the evaluation of student’s achievement and evaluation of curriculum.
Philosophers of the past have made major influence in clarifying the association in the nature of knowledge and curriculum development process and also provide a foundation for curriculum; Plato presented a curriculum in his book “republic” at that times and it is still the core of the curriculum of today. Knowledge is given the high role in human life.
Today world economics and societies are changing very rapidly; it needs depth in every discipline of education in this high time.                                                                                                                 
Today the world emphasis on finding new ways through which man develops new concepts of reality and knowledge and to form a new structure of knowledge in this dynamic and changing time therefore a high value is given to discovery, invention and restructuring of knowledge  and curriculum in new patterns. Now the new curriculum is open to new experiences, logical and critical thinking, and to bring about the concept of knowledge out of interpreted experience.
Philosophy and ideology of education provide rules and principles which lead the in decision-making regarding educational practices and polices planning. It Guides the curriculum planner on the basses of the philosophical and ideological belief of the society in the constructing of subject matter keeping in view the future demands and needs of the schools and help in the promoting of human life through social change in the behavior of the students. In Pakistan the ideological beliefs of the society is based on Islam…                                                                                                                                                          
.
Therefore they are looking for curriculum planner to introduce such curriculum in education system, which inculcate true knowledge of Islam and preserve the culture of Muslim society in new generation that why they believe that Islamic curricula should be based on the ideology of Islamic laws and principles.
Philosophical/ ideological Implications on Curriculum
Philosophy and ideology has direct effect in curriculum planning because it guides the curriculum planner in the selection of the objectives and. As it provides guidelines in the selection of objectives, Learning experiences and content of the curriculum, and how to evaluate the curriculum, learning experiences and achievements of the students. Some justification provided for the implications of curriculum given by different researcher are as under (Rud Yard K. Bent and Urruh, n.d.);
  •  Various customs values, traditions and knowledge need to be preserved by transfer them to the next generation.
  • The students also needed the knowledge of past and present in which they live, it help them in the process of adaptation and adjusting their self to new changes and new situation in life.
All those content of a subject who helps in intellectual development rather than practical value. It teaches student how to reason, develops mental ability to solve the problems in practical life situations. It helps in using different methods for search of eternal truth and how to analyze the knowledge and methods of inquiry.
  • The Secondary school curriculum should designed for developing maximum potentialities  of the students by including variety of leaning activities to educate each students to its highest.
  • Schools should be a tool and leader in directing new changes in the curriculum rather than maintainers of curriculum.
  • Students need skills and for that purpose some subject matter must be included in the curriculum to help them in acquiring these skills like experimentation and the use of laboratory techniques so they advance the knowledge.
 Psychological foundations
Psychological foundation is based on the individual differences, every student has its own unique personality and they have differences in their leering and skills. They are different in nature so they can’t be treated alike in teaching learning process, some may be fast learner while other slow. Therefore the curriculum should be based on the above facts, and it should be design to support the capacity and potentialities of all the students.
Psychology play a vital role in the teaching learning process it is the foundation for all type of educational related programmed. The methods of teaching, the selection of content of subject and the methods and theories of learning, the overall development of the students and to inculcate the norms of the society in the students. Psychology helps in all the processes above in the development process of the curriculum.
In the past curriculum for child development and learning was developed in traditional ways without keeping in view the psychological implication in the development of curriculum.
Today psychology is the core and foundation element of all the learning processes; curriculum development, Child mental development, teaching methods, learning theories, administration of education system and planning, character building of the students,  attitude of students and teacher, the society, the use of different technologies.
Today the researchers and Scholars using experimental approach to find new ways of teaching learning process, how students learn under different conditions. They are finding new ways and materials from the analysis of teaching learning problem and formulating new approaches for teaching and learning process.
Psychology helps in all fields of education, it not just add to knowledge, psychology is applied in practical class room situation as well as in the curriculum development process by defining teaching methods and origination of the
In the process of using psychology in curriculum development process some positive concepts or ideas about teaching learning process emerged, it is reflected in the work produced by different authors.
       The traditional readiness concept for a difficult subject which require children maturity has been rejected by the modern researchers, now the researchers formed a new principle that the child can teach any subject on the condition that it provided keeping in view the principle of from simple to complex and that the students have the previous experience.
       When the importance is given to basic concepts and the process of inquiry for teaching learning and curriculum development process the transfer of learning and future learning are improved.
       the guided discovery of  the relationships in the student learning outcomes, subject matter and in teaching methods play a very important role in the teaching learning process compare to those approaches in which the curriculum planner used the views and conclusions of other for  developing curriculum.
  • The Interest and motivation  level of the students may be generated using the discovery method within the subject itself, the content of the subject should be interesting and appealing to generate curiosity  in the students to find more. In this way the student engage in finding the relationships in the subject matter presented to him, and engage the students in the process of inquiry.
  • Meaningful conversation involves the students in the organizing or structuring of facts into conceptual system which help the students to generate new ideas, make new interpretations and raise new questions.
    • The researchers prefer the use of inductive methods because it helps in the discovery through inquiry and help in the formulating of hypotheses and interpretation of information.
  • To study a topic in depth or more helpful in the discovering the relationships between them than try to cover the whole material in once.
  • The Depth of learning could be attained by applying different ideas, processes, theories, and models.
    • Learning is improved when there is relationship order in the continuity of unit to unit from simple to complex in the instruction programme.
    • The solving of problems helps the students in acquiring the concept development, and how to use different principles which lead the students to a higher level of mental development.
    •  
    •                 It put emphasis on the organizing of ideas which helps the students to develop the skills to identify the relationships, improves their skills, remembers and retrieves old ideas; it provides a foundation for generating new ideas and concepts, and helps in the transfer of learning.
Therefore it is said that the impact of psychological sources on the foundations of curriculum is more than significant and still on the rise. The scope of the psychology for applying in curriculum construction and its principles, concepts, processes. The role of psychology in the development of curriculum is vast and with each day it is becoming increasingly more meaningful and unavoidable.
The purpose of psychology and psychologist is the study of human behavior, the study of living being. Investigate and explain the behavior of animate creatures. Therefore, curriculum needs educational psychology to provide information particularly in five areas:
       Prepare objectives of education.
  •    Characteristics of the students.
  •    The leaning processes.
  •    The methods of Teaching.

Socio Cultural Foundation
According to Murray print (1993). The society and culture exercise massive powers on the formation curriculum and the reason behind that it was society who created schooling to safeguard the survival of their cultural heritage, and survival of their species.
The purpose of curriculum planner and developers to translate traditional norms, philosophies, ethics, knowledge and attitudes in the objectives of curriculum, the content, learning processes and the evaluation of  elements of the curriculum. Sociological factors have highest impact on the content of curriculum and that is the reason that curriculum developers and planner both reflect and transfer their own culture in curriculum. Therefore a curriculum without the reflection of culture is not possible for that reason one should consider what characteristic of the culture should be the part of curriculum and what not.
The social and cultural inspirations that affect curriculum designers consciously and unconsciously are apparent from the curriculum and their influence is deep. For example in Pakistan the curriculum is more reflective of the society and curriculum is design in a way that leads society to change. The society manifest through the curriculum and education, and the outcomes of the curriculum developers display the role of both of the above in curriculum development.
Because curriculum developers are the part of the society therefore they indirectly effected by the society and culture.  Their cultural standards, attitudes and beliefs leave deep impact on the individuals because the curriculum designers influence the selection of objectives, subject matter, teaching learning methods and the process of evaluation.
Example: A group of teacher formulated a new course for teaching in schools to enhance the quality of the subject in curriculum. After the completion of the subject matter when analyze again one could not determine some lesson were eliminated and some were included in the course, how the old content was evaluated even the teacher who constructed the curriculum for the subject was unable to clearly say what was the basis of their decisions. If story reading was a component of the revised curriculum, what proportion would be real reading? And Why? And what would be the method for the assessment of that lesson? What stories were selected and why these are questions need to be asked from the curriculum developers
on the other hand, may be curriculum developers are well aware of society needs and they have planned intention to incorporate all those things in the curricula which the society need in the curriculum but the question is that the curriculum should student centered or society. Curriculum should be a tool for guiding the student’s potentialities in directions or to develop those potentialities without any restrictions.
Some Social values, changes and conditions are included into some extent in some of the curriculum projects in the context of current social issues and problems, such as rapid growth of population, democratic values, urbanization, and management problems could be found in proposed program. Some vital problems and topics are considered in relation to concepts and key ideas drawn from the disciplines.
In another way in which the social situation is used as a source of content and information for the curriculum formulation may be found in the present-day situations that are selected to light up the concepts and main ideas from the selected disciplines e.g.  In mathematics program there may be some problems of social significance, for which student may use mathematical concepts to solve the problem. Or in others societal science program, socially important situations may be used to encompass and expand concepts and generalizations.
Therefore it can be concluded, that social and cultural forces have deep effect upon the curriculum. To find how much and to which degree the society and culture affect the education system of that society is controversial issue. Curriculum developer are the part of that society and culture therefore they should keep in mind that there decision could affect their culture and society. Therefore their decision should be culturally related to the society need and values
Guideline given by Rud Yard (1969) related to curriculum planning decision-making, it derived from societal needs and goals.
  • The goals of education emerge from the needs  and wishes of the society
  • When a society urge a need or a goal it becomes an educational objective and the school accepted that demand and they attempt to attain that goal by putting it into school objectives.
And when a societal goal become an educational objective then the school, teacher and student must make their efforts to achieve it and for that purpose appropriate educational facilities and methods must be planned.
If there is a conflict between the objectives and aims of majority and minority groups, the aims of larger group is accepted.
Educational aims are based on the study of sociological and political condition of the society and the main purpose of the curriculum is preservation and advancement of the that society
Historical Foundations
It includes
  1. Role of curriculum in achievements of nations.
  2. Guides future plans
  3. Factors that influence development of nation e.g. unity
  4. Eliminates the useless traditions.
Role of the History of curriculum in the development of curriculum
History of the curriculum plays a very important role in the development of the nation. It takes long and tedious time to formulate a good curriculum which represents the need of the society and the experiences of the past. The history of the curriculum tell the curriculum planner how to develop and modify the curriculum, what to teach and what should be the core material of the subjects, what objectives they want to achieve through the curriculum. History also tell them how the teacher should teach, what are the best practices they need to incorporate in curriculum teaching and what kind of teaching need to be avoid.
                                                                                                                               
The history of the curriculum also explains the teacher psychology at different time and how to improve their teaching styles. The history also provides a detail about the learner behavior at different times. It also provides information about the psychology of the students, how they learn and what they want to learn. In times curriculum changed its shapes and patterns from teacher center curriculum to learner center curriculum due to the long history of the curriculum development process from Plato to modern curriculum. the history of the curriculum also changed the teaching methods, now every researcher are finding new ways to teach and it is also becoming the part of curriculum  an history.
Today majority of the develop countries are those countries who have a long history of freedom and proper education system. They achieved their successes through education and implementation of time needed curriculum. They modified their curriculum according to the need of time. Some of newly born countries also achieved that status because they adopted successful model of other developed countries and modified according to their own needs and culture.
History Guides future plans
The history of the curriculum guides the future plans because curriculum is always based on the future demands of the country and the lesson learned through history, tell the curriculum developer not to repeat the mistake of the past and develop a curriculum which is based on the future need of the society and international demands. History is the profile of past successes and failures. 
   History helps in the eliminations of useless traditions
The history of education tells the curriculum developer what not to include in the curriculum. What of lessons can bring no good to the curriculum and what type of contents material are good for the teaching learning process, so history of the curriculum eliminate all those useless traditions from the modern curriculum and help the developer to incorporate what is needed for the curriculum.
A short history of the curriculum and curriculum development process
Plato was the earliest most important Greek Philosopher and educational thinker. Plato thinks education as a key for a society and he stress on education, for this purpose he want to go to the extreme level even removing children from their mothers and rise them by the state, he want to identify the skills of the children and give them proper education for that particular skill which they have so they could be become a suitable member of the society and fulfil their duty in society.
 Plato describes different stages of education in his republic. According to Plato the education of child should be start at the age of seven year and before this stage the child should stay with their mother or elders and learn moral education from them.
After the age of six years both girls and boys should be separated and boys should play with boys and girls with girls and they should be taught the use of different arms to both sexes. This stage goes up to the age of seventeen years. During these years they should teach them music and early education. After the age of seventeen years the youth should be brought to battle field to learn real life experiences.
The fourth stage start at the age of twenty five to thirty years and in this age they get the training of Mathematical calculation and last for another ten years, after the completion the selected one’s are admitted in the study of dialect.
 
During fifth stage they study dialect for another five years and after that, at the sixth stage one is ready to become a ruler and philosopher and the one enter in practical life.
The 11th century was a dark era for education. Few people in Western Europe were receiving any kind of schooling and across the globe; contributions were being made to the future of education.  In China, printing by movable type was invented in 1045, and proved to be one of the most powerful inventions of this era which affect the curriculum development process and bring huge change in the improvement of curriculum and contents of the curriculum around the world. With future educational systems focusing on the written word, the invention of type printing set the path for future publications. The first paper mill was built in France in 1338. Paper was a Chinese invention (c. 600 AD), brought to Europe by the Arabs in the 11th century.
The great educator of Islam, Imam Ghazali was born in 1059 AD near Tus in Khurasan, a part of the then Persia.
His educational philosophy based on his personal experience. The philosophy, which he formulated over a period of 10 years, resembles to the Philosophy of Plato. He used his personal experience and concluded the reasons
According to Ghazali, there are four categories of Knowledge;
1.  Prophetic
2.  Rulers
3.  Philosophers/scholars    4. Preachers
 Curriculum:
 Ghazali strongly criticizes the curriculum of his time. He raises the basic question of criteria for selection of subject matter for curriculum. He studied the various curriculums in his times and reached the following conclusions:
. More time is spent on religious education and worldly education is completely ignores
.  Worldly education is equally important
.  While teaching religious education, a great number of differences arise among the teachers, which result in mudslinging on each other
.
There is no Prioritization and it is only left to the interest and opinions of the teachers to concentrate on certain subjects, while ignore others.
.   No place for character building in curriculum
Ghazali included industrial education, textile, agriculture, tailoring and hair cutting in the curriculum

Methods of Teaching and Techniques:
Ghazali has recommended the following teaching methods and techniques, which are based on psychological principles. These methods and techniques are widely used and educators all over the world agree with their usefulness and today they are the foundation of curriculum development process.
        Teaching of lessons to be based on previous knowledge and experience of the students.
        Teachers should simplify the difficult concepts by stories, tales etc. otherwise his teaching will not be effective
      Move from simple to complex.
 This is a very important principle of today curriculum which was presented by Ghazali at those times. History of curriculum laid down the basic foundation of curriculum development
Proper planning
 Ghazali stresses the importance of planning and advises that teachers should do his preparation before teaching to make it effective
Abilities of students:
 Ghazali stresses that while teaching the abilities of students should be kept in mind. Concepts, which are above the mental level of the students, will not make the teaching effective. Today in modern curriculum teachers are asked to keep in mind the individual differences.
 In the era of colonist, the colonist came to indo-pack and they set up schools exactly like the ones they knew in Europe. The curriculum was centered on the learning of letters, numbers, and prayers. Their strict learning environment did not allow for crafts nor recess breaks, and only one out of ten children attended school.
There were common characteristics shared by these colonies:
1. Religious Education; its major aim was personal salvation
2         Education was centered on social class, dual system or class system.  The children of workers should have minimal primary education, they learned the 4 R's (reading, writing, arithmetic, and religion
3          With the exception of few Schools, education was only for boys
4          Most children in colonial times received their education through informal means such as the family, the farm, and the shop.
Changes in educational philosophy and curriculum came about in this era as well.  In 1901, John Dewey wrote The Child and the Curriculum, and later Democracy and Education, in which he shows concern for the relationship between society and education. Dewey was a philosopher, psychologist, and educator.
His philosophy of education focused on learning by doing rather than rote memorization. He criticized the old education system which keeps students busy.  From Dewey’s educational philosophy came the emphasis on experience, activity, and problem-solving that helped to reshape our thinking about education and schooling. 
Maria Montessori opened her first school in 1907.  Maria Montessori was credited with developing a classroom without walls, manipulative learning materials, teaching toys, and programmed instruction.  Many considered her to be the 20th century's leading advocate for early childhood education. 
Anna Freud, Jean Piaget, Alfred Adler, and Erik Erikson studied under Montessori and made their own contributions to education and child psychology
The civil rights movement and technology change the face of the 20th century classroom.
In the 1990s, the computers invade the classroom around the world and now it the most important part of the curriculum.
In short history is the foundation of the modern curriculum

Economical Foundations
It focuses on:
        Job or market oriented curriculum
        Skill learning
The economical foundation of curriculum gives importance to the vocational aspect of the curriculum. The economic  condition of a nation or a society guide the curriculum of the country, because the stakeholder of the education wants to employ such a curriculum which help them to build their economy and the people have better jobs when they finish their schooling. In this kind of situations the curriculum become job or market oriented. In this curriculum the curriculum developer gives importance to skills acquisition which is the demands of the time. Undeveloped nations try to prepare skill work force and send it to other countries for jobs
Here are some economical factor which influence the curriculum development process
Economic Factors
  1. Allocation of funds
 The financial condition of a country reflects its curriculum because without proper funding one can’t achieve the outcome of a good curriculum. It is the financial aspect of a country which guide them to adopt which type of curriculum, for example activity base or learner center curriculum need more money in the process of the implementation of the curriculum then subject matter curriculum
                                                                                                                                                                               
Because activity base and learner center curriculum need more space and money then subject matter, for that reason in Pakistan we adopted subject base curriculum because we have shortage of schools, classrooms in schools, trained teachers. In economical sound countries they have implemented all kind of curriculums in their schools according to the need of the school and that society. Without proper funding once can’t implement a good curriculum in the country and achieve the benefits of that curriculum.
Lack of resources due to finical constrains effect the developing and planning of the curriculum. What type of a curriculum should have to support it through proper funding? There are different factor in curriculum development, planning and implementation process which need financial support e.g.
Schools lack physical facilities including buildings, classrooms, furniture, Hostel, Play grounds, mats and even very basic necessities like blackboard, chalk, and charts.
Lack of other resources water, Fan, Electricity
  Lack of skilled manpower
The lack of skilled manpower due to financial restrains, without proper financial support it is hard to train the people to support the teaching learning process. Only through proper funding and the establishment of training institutions for teachers and support staff. Teachers are the core of education system and without proper training one can’t implement a curriculum and to support the curriculum one need to train the entire teacher on that style of curriculum. So the skills of the teachers also guide the direction of the curriculum, and to develop these skills in the teachers need funds.
Lack of labs due to financial problems
The lack of labs and libraries also affect the curriculum development process because without proper computer labs in cities and villages one can’t implement computer education curriculum all over the country. In the same way without proper libraries in all school one can’t implement a curriculum which needs supporting or reference books.
Also without proper health care system in the schools lot of activities can’t part of the curriculum due to the risk factor to the health of the students and teachers.
The overburden of the population is also one of the factors that affect the financial support of the curriculum development, lack of facilities and implementation of the curriculum in the country.
In short we can say that economic play a vital role in the curriculum development and implementation process in the country and it is the foundation of the successful curriculum, without a good economic background a country can’t afford a curriculum which needs huge financial support.